An old style warm up would consist of 5-15 minutes steady cardiovascular work e.g. jogging followed by stretching. The stretching component means athletes would sit about stretching and usually chatting and by the time the session starts they are cold both physically and mentally.

Using the old style warm up technique athletes are no where near prepared for the dynamic activity they are about to

A warm-up is the period before any exercise or activity, which consists of movements designed to raise the core body temperature and bring the mind into focus for the activities that follow. There are several types of warm-ups; the warm-up serves a number of purposes: improving blood flow to the heart, increasing the muscle temperature, protect against injury through improved flexibility of muscles, and provides time for pre-competition or pre-training psychological preparation. Warm-ups generally consist of gradual increases in exercise intensity, some stretching, and activity-specific movement...

Sport-specific Warm Up - more dynamic in nature

Specific warm ups increase temperature using similar biomechanics that are to be used in subsequent, more strenuous activity. Some of the best ways to perform a specific warm up is to perform the upcoming activities at a slow-moderate-fast pace which enables nerves and muscles to be switched on and the functional range of movement developed.

Old style warm up


Cool Down

A cool-down is the portion immediately following an exercise session that allows the body to gradually transition from an exertional state to a resting or near resting state. Cool-downs should involve a gradual yet continuous decrease in exercise intensity (i.e. from a hard run to an easy jog to a brisk walk), a period of stretching, and re-hydration. Durations can vary for different people, but 5-10 minutes is considered adequate. A typical cool-down my consist of a slow jog or walk. Ingestion of a sports drink or some form of carbohydrate is recommended following exercise sessions that last longer than one hour.

Cooling down helps remove lactic acid and allows the heart rate to return to its resting rate.

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Athlepedia - references:



Exercise is the working of a muscle or muscle group with the intention of increasing muscle mass and strength or endurance. Exercise comes in two forms, aerobic and anaerobic. Though in practice it is impossible to completely separate the two forms


Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body. Aerobic means "with oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen in the body's metabolic or energy-generating process.

Aerobic exercises are generally your low to moderate intensity routines usually done to increase stamina and endurance. Jogging, finning, or playing basketball would all be good examples of Aerobic exercise or activity. Aerobic activity usually targets slow-twitch muscle fibers.


Anaerobic, or "without oxygen", activity targets fast-twitch muscle fibers in short duration, high intensity work loads that increase size and strength. The best example of Anaerobic activity is weight lifting, sprints....etc.


Stamina refers to the ability of body systems to process, deliver, store, and utilize energy. It is commonly known as the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to perform repetitive contractions over a period of time.


Endurance, simply put, is the ability to endure; it is an object or person's lasting quality. Thus, the longer a thing lasts, the greater the endurance.

Slow-twitch muscle fibers

There are basically two types of muscle fibers: Slow Twitch and Fast Twitch or respectively Type I and Type II, which can be subdivided into a whole spectrum of fibers starting with Type II-a. Since exercise converts Type II subtypes into "a" by increasing mitachondria among other things, there is little sense in keeping track of the distinctions.

Fast Twitch muscles correspond in color to dark turkey meat because they have far more mitachondria than type II.

Lactic acid: 

Lactic acid, also known as milk acid, is a chemical comprised of the elements hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. When you exercise, the body breaks down sugar into a variety of chemicals. If your body has sufficient oxygen, the body produces the chemicals carbon dioxide and water, and you experience no pain. However, if oxygen is in short supply, lactic acid builds up. If lactic acid levels become too high, you feel pain or burning in the affected area. It generally takes approximately one hour for lactic acid to work its way out of the body.

One of the best ways to control lactic acid is to improve your physical health. Increase the number and intensity of your workouts. The more physically fit you are, the less glucose your body needs to burn, and therefore the less acid your body will build up.

Heart rate: (HR) 

is the rate at which the heart beats expressed in beats per minute (BPM). Heart rate, along with stroke volume, is a primary determinant of cardiac output

Resting Heart rate:    

Resting heart rate (RHR) is the slowest rate at which the heart can effectively pump blood to the body. It can be determined by either taking the radial pulse or the carotid pulse. The resting heart rate should be taken three days in a row (then averaged), just after a good night's sleep and before you get out of bed.

The average RHR for males is about 70 beats per minute (BPM) and about 75 BPM for females. Generally, the lower the RHR, the better. This is because the heart can pump out more blood to the body with each beat, thereby increasing its efficiency.

Recovery Heart rate: 

Recovery heart rate is the heart rate measured at a fixed (or reference) period after ceasing activity, typically measured over a one minute period.

A greater reduction in heart rate after exercise during the reference period indicates a better-conditioned heart. Heart rates that do not drop by more than 12 bpm one minute after stopping exercise are associated with an increased risk of death

Stroke volume: (SV) 

is the amount of blood pumped from a ventricle in a single heartbeat. Stroke volume, along with heart rate, is one of the primary determinants of cardiac output.

Cardiac output: (Q)  

is the product of stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR), where Q=HR x SV. In essence, then, more work equates to more blood pumped by the heart per minute. As an individual increases fitness levels, the heart is able to pump more blood per stroke, i.e. more cardiac output in fewer heart beats, thereby increasing efficiency.


are called carbohydrates because the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen they contain are generally in proportion to form water with the general formula Cn (H2O)n. It is one of the four major classes of biomolecules - carbohydrates, proteins, nucleotides, and lipids. Carbohydrates, or saccharides, are the most abundant of the four. A major food source and a key form of energy for most organisms. When combined together to form polymers, carbohydrates can function as long term food storage molecules, as protective membranes for organisms and cells, and as the main structural support for plants and constituents of many cells and their contents

Lipids - fats

Molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. The main constituents of all membranes in all cells (cell walls), food storage molecules, intermediaries in signaling pathways, Vitamins A, D, E and K


Molecules contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They act as biological catalysts (enzymes), form structural parts of organisms, participate in cell signal and recognition factors, and act as molecules of immunity. Proteins can also be a source of fuel

Nucleic acids:

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). These molecules are involved in genetic information, as well as forming structure within cells. They are involved in the storage of all heritable information of all organisms, as well as the conversion of this data into proteins


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